In our last article, we talked about ChatGPT. It is one of the most popular AI tools currently on the internet. And now it is in the centre of lots of discourses about the future of AI. ChatGPT technology is based in something called “language modelling”. Language modelling is an important aspect of natural language processing (NLP). It involves the use of statistical and probabilistic techniques to predict the likelihood of a sequence of words in a given context.
In simpler terms, it is the process of determining the probability of a specific sentence or word in a given language. Language modelling is an essential component in many NLP applications such as speech recognition, machine translation, and text-to-speech synthesis. So, in today’s article, we’d like to do a follow up of ChatGPT’s article. In the next topics, we will explain more about the technology it’s based from.
What is Language Modelling?
Language modelling involves using various techniques to predict the probability of a given sequence of words within a particular context. It is used in many natural language processing applications, including speech recognition, machine translation, and text-to-speech synthesis. There are several techniques to perform language modelling. They include n-gram models and neural language models.
N-gram models are a type of language model that use the probability of the previous ‘n’ words to predict the likelihood of the next word in a given sentence. For example, a 2-gram model, also known as a bigram model, would use the probability of the previous word to predict the probability of the next word. This approach is based on the assumption that the probability of a word in a sequence is only dependent on the previous ‘n’ words, and not on the entire sentence.
However, one of the limitations of n-gram models is that they can only capture a limited amount of contextual information. This is because they are based on the assumption that the probability of a word is only dependent on the previous ‘n’ words. This assumption may not always hold true. Especially when dealing with complex sentences that require a more in-depth understanding of the context.
To address this limitation, it’s already in development more advanced models such as neural language models. Neural language models use artificial neural networks to predict the probability of a given sequence of words. These models are trained on large datasets and can learn complex patterns in language. One of the most popular neural language models is the recurrent neural network (RNN), designed to handle sequential data. Another popular neural language model is the transformer model. This one bases itself on the self-attention mechanism to outperform other models on many language tasks.
Applications and Challenges of Language Modelling
There are several uses for language modelling. Main applications include language processing applications, including speech recognition, machine translation, and text-to-speech synthesis. In speech recognition, it’s used to predict the probability of a given sequence of words based on the audio input. For machine translation, they use language models to predict the probability of a translated sentence based on the source language. And, at last, in text-to-speech synthesis, we can use models to generate speech from a given text input.
Despite the many advances in language modelling, the field still faces several challenges. For instance, one of the main challenges is the difficulty of dealing with out-of-vocabulary words. In other words, when a language model encounters a word that is not present in the training data, it may be unable to predict it accurately. This is especially problematic in cases where out-of-vocabulary words are used frequently in a particular domain or context.
Another challenge that language modelling faces is dealing with long-term dependencies in language. It refers to the relationships between words separated by a significant distance in text. This makes it difficult for traditional models to capture them. One way to address this challenge is to use more sophisticated models. They are better able to capture the context of the text.
Finally, language modelling must also contend with the challenge of dealing with noise in the data. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as errors in transcription, inconsistencies in spelling, and variations in dialect or style. To improve the accuracy of the model, it is necessary to develop methods for identifying and correcting these types of noise in the data.
Language modelling is an essential component of natural language processing, and we cannot overstate its importance. It’s already responsible for many applications, including speech recognition, machine translation, and text-to-speech synthesis. N-gram models and neural language models are two of the most commonly used approaches to language modelling. Neural language models showed to be more advanced and capable of handling complex patterns in language. As natural language processing continues to advance, language modelling will undoubtedly play a significant role in shaping the future of this field.
To show how amazing it’s the possibilities of language modelling, an AI wrote this article. Instead of ChatGPT, we chose to use the recently launched Notion’s AI. After giving instructions to the AI, we had only to do a few tweaks to the text to improve its readability. And the results speak for themselves.